Germany

Kampfpanzer Leopard 2 A5 bei einer Lehr- und Gefechtsvorführung.

Not So Much Zeitenwende as Progressive Puffery

Not since Willy Brandt’s 1970s Ostpolitik has a German geopolitical term made such waves as Olaf Scholz’s Zeitenwende. Amidst the shock and horror of Russia’s onslaught against Ukraine last year, the Chancellor stood up in the Bundestag only three days into the war to explain how Putin’s aggression was a “historical turning point” – a Zeitenwende – […]

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Auf dem Truppenübungsplatz, mit einem Soldaten beim Erläutern der Panzerhaubitze 2000

A Year after Germany’s “Sea Change,” Policy Change Remains Elusive

Nine days before Russian President Vladimir Putin began his war of conquest in Ukraine, Germany’s Chancellor Olaf Scholz visited Moscow. He summed up his meetings by repeating a phrase made famous by Egon Bahr, West Germany’s emissary to Moscow in the 1970s: “Without Russia, a peace order in Europe is not possible.” This line

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